The 1st Battalion had arrived in India in October 1938 and was stationed in Wellington, South India. They also brought in large numbers of captured British trucks and other vehicles, which allowed them to move supplies rapidly using southern Burma's road network, and also use Motorised infantry columns, particularly against the Chinese forces. The Chinese armies each had approximately the strength of a British division but comparatively little equipment. By extending from South East Asia to India, its area included some lands which the British lost at the outset of the war, but also included areas of India wherein the Japanese advance was eventually stopped. . During the first year of the campaign, the Imperial Japanese Army with aid from Burmese insurgents had driven British forces and Chinese forces out of Burma, and occupied most of the country. The first was a small offensive into the coastal Arakan Province of Burma. , The Japanese were influenced to an unknown degree by Subhas Chandra Bose, commander of the Indian National Army. 2nd ed. Burma had been regarded as a military "backwater", unlikely to be subjected to Japanese threat.. During the first year of the campaign, the Japanese Army (with aid from Thai Phayap Army and Burmese insurgents) drove British Empire and Chinese forces out of Burma, then began the Japanese occupation of Burma and formed a nominally independent Burmese administrative government. , The Japanese Fifteenth Army consisted of three infantry divisions and a brigade-sized detachment ("Yamamoto Force"), and initially a regiment from the Indian National Army. 10 likes. Save for later. Allied air efforts were often undertaken even during the five monsoon months of the year that occur in that part of Asia—a wet season that gets as much as five me… With misgivings on the part of several of Mutaguchi's superiors and subordinates, Operation U-Go was launched. X Force was the name given to the portion of the National Revolutionary Army's Chinese Expeditionary Force that retreated from Burma into India in 1942. , The second action was controversial. , The Japanese successfully attacked over the Kawkareik Pass and captured the port of Moulmein at the mouth of the Salween River after overcoming stiff resistance. IV Corps made the main attack down the "Railway Valley", which was also followed by the Sittaung River. XXXIII Corps had renewed its attack on Mandalay. The Japanese Twenty-Eighth Army, after withdrawing from Arakan and resisting XXXIII Corps in the Irrawaddy valley, had retreated into the Pegu Yomas, a range of low jungle-covered hills between the Irrawaddy and Sittang rivers. Five days later, Chinese troops on the command's left flank captured the city of Bhamo. In most cases, such training and equipment as the Indian units in Burma received was for operations in the Western Desert campaign or the North West Frontier of India, rather than jungles. The Allies hoped that the Japanese advance would slow down; instead, it gained speed. Colonel Takanobu Sakuma, commanding the Japanese 214th Infantry Regiment, had been ordered to block the main road north from Rangoon to Prome while the main body of the 33rd Division circled round the city to attack from the west. XV Corps operations on the mainland were curtailed to release transport aircraft to support Fourteenth Army. After the Japanese withdrawal, Yangon had experienced an orgy of looting and lawlessness similar to the last days of the British in the city in 1942. , The campaign was also strongly affected from the political atmosphere which erupted in the South-East Asian regions occupied by Japan, who pursued the Pan-Asianist policy of a "Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere".  The Burma Corps retreated to Manipur in India. Fearing that the bridge would fall intact to the Japanese who would use it to advance on Rangoon, the divisional commander, Major-General "Jackie" Smyth, VC, ordered it to be blown up on the morning of 23 February 1942, with most of the division stranded on the enemy-held side. The dropping of the atomic bombs forestalled this operation, but it was undertaken post-war as the quickest way of getting occupation troops into Malaya. Under British rule, there had been substantial economic development but the majority Bamar community was becoming increasingly restive. Both Bose and Mutaguchi emphasised the advantages which would be gained by a successful attack into India. Send-to-Kindle or Email . This, together with other factors such as famine and disorder in British India and the priority given by the Allies to the defeat of Nazi Germany, prolonged the campaign and divided it into four phases: the Japanese invasion, which led to the expulsion of British, Indian and Chinese forces in 1942; failed attempts by the Allies to mount offensives into Burma, from late 1942 to early 1944; the 1944 Japanese invasion of India, which ultimately failed following the battles of Imphal and Kohima; and finally the successful Allied offensive which reoccupied Burma from late-1944 to mid-1945. The Japanese 18th and 56th Divisions pursued the Chinese into Yunnan, but were ordered to halt on the Salween River on 26 April. In the open terrain of Central Burma, this force outmanoeuvred the Japanese and fell on Meiktila on 1 March. Being shot down over the dense jungle made survival difficult. A US-led guerrilla force, OSS Detachment 101, took over the remaining military responsibilities of NCAC. In such conditions of chaos, it was difficult to improve the inadequate lines of communication to the front line in Assam or make use of local industries for the war effort. In the Arakan, XV Indian Corps withstood, and then broke, a Japanese counterstrike, while the Japanese invasion of India resulted in unbearably heavy losses and the ejection of the Japanese back beyond the Chindwin River. Progress was slow, as movement was made difficult by monsoon rains and IV Corps was short of supplies. [according to whom?] The Japanese Thirty-third Army, led by Lieutenant General Masaki Honda, defended Northern Burma against attacks from both Northern India and the Chinese province of Yunnan. After a pause during which more Allied reinforcements arrived, XXXIII Corps renewed its offensive. Se vi volas enigi tiun artikolon en la originalan Esperanto-Vikipedion, vi povas uzi nian specialan redakt-interfacon. Main article: Burma Campaign 1942–43 The Japanese did not renew their offensive after the monsoon ended. , Meanwhile, the Chinese forces on the Yunnan front (Y Force) mounted an attack starting in the second half of April, with nearly 75,000 troops crossing the Salween river on a 300 kilometres (190 mi) front. , Nevertheless, the Allies mounted two operations during the 1942–1943 dry season. Alth… With the effective collapse of the entire defensive line, there was little choice left other than an overland retreat to India or to Yunnan. Page 6. The Japanese forced their way over the steep jungle-covered Tenasserim Range, and attacked Tavoy on 18 January. The corps was gradually pushed northward towards Mandalay. Landing craft had now reached the theatre, and XV Corps launched amphibious attacks on the Myebon peninsula on 12 January 1945 and at Kangaw ten days later during the Battle of Hill 170 to cut off the retreating Japanese. , The retreat was conducted in very difficult circumstances. The Japanese did not renew their offensive after the monsoon ended. Zaloga, Steven.  The hastily reconstituted 1st Burma Division was unable to recapture Monywa, but allowed the rest of the Corps to withdraw to the north. A YANK ON THE BURMA ROAD, US poster, from left: Barry Nelson, Laraine Day, 1942. These plans had not taken into account the fact that Britain was also at war with Germany, and when Japan entered the war, the forces needed to defend these possessions were not available. , In October 1943 the Chinese 38th Division led by Sun Li-jen began to advance from Ledo, Assam towards Myitkyina and Mogaung while American engineers and Indian labourers extended the Ledo Road behind them. It was hoped that the Chinese Expeditionary Force in Burma, commanded by Luo Zhuoying and consisting of the Fifth Army (commanded by Du Yuming) and the Sixth and Sixty-sixth Armies, could hold a front south of Mandalay. At Bose's instigation, a substantial contingent of the INA joined in this Chalo Delhi ("March on Delhi"). Soon some twelve Chinese divisions of 175,000 men, under General Wei Lihuang, were attacking the Japanese 56th Division. The original conception of the plan to re-take Burma had envisaged XV Corps making an amphibious assault on Rangoon well before Fourteenth Army reached the capital, in order to ease supply problems. The Imphal operation was finally broken off early in July, and the Japanese retreated painfully to the Chindwin River. , An account of the Japanese attack on the Hui in Panglong was written and published in 1998 by a Hui from Panglong called "Panglong Booklet". By the end of June, they had linked up with Stilwell's forces but were exhausted, and were withdrawn to India. The Chinese troops could not retreat because the routes to Yunnan were controlled by Axis forces and many Chinese soldiers were captured. The Burma campaign was a series of battles fought in the British colony of Burma. Under the command of Brigadier Orde Wingate, a long-range penetration unit known as the Chindits infiltrated through the Japanese front lines and marched deep into Burma, with the initial aim of cutting the main north-south railway in Burma in an operation codenamed Operation Longcloth. The Japanese 33rd Division, Japanese 15th Division and the INA 1st Division had suffered a similar fate at Imphal. Though the Allied force had advanced successfully into central Burma, it was vital to capture the port of Rangoon before the monsoon to avoid a logistics crisis.  The Japanese 33rd Division likewise halted on the Chindwin at the end of May, ending the campaign until the end of the monsoon rains. The flow of refugees began soon after the bombing of Rangoon in late December 1941 and increased to a "mass exodus" in February 1942 as the Indian (and Anglo-Indian and Anglo-Burmese) population of Burma fled to India, fearing both the Japanese and hostile Burmese. Sakurai's Twenty-Eighth Army was not ready to start the break-out until 17 July. There was also a disastrous famine in Bengal, which may have led to 3 million deaths through starvation, disease and exposure. Alliierte Einheiten kämpften dabei gegen Truppen des Japanischen Kaiserreichs und dessen Verbündete. The leading elements of the Thai Phayap Army crossed the border into the Shan States on 10 May 1942. A division advanced to Donbaik, only a few miles from the end of the peninsula but was halted by a small but well entrenched Japanese force. File: PDF, 13.04 MB. Chiang Kai-shek sent troops into Burma from Yunnan in 1942 to assist the British in holding back the Japanese. To relieve Allied positions in Burma, the Chinese Expeditionary Force (CEF) was formed from the Fifth Army and the New Sixth Army, under the command of American Lieutenant General Joseph Stilwell. Ranges of steep hills channelled the advance into three attacks each by an Indian or West African division. For the British non-governmental organisation, see Burma Campaign UK. Kengtung, the main objective, was captured on 27 May.  When Burma came under attack, the Bamar were unwilling to contribute to the defence of the British establishment, and many readily joined movements which aided the Japanese. Their attacks were not properly coordinated and were repulsed. It was part of the South-East Asian theatre of World War II and primarily involved forces of the Allies; the British Empire and the Republic of China, with support from the United States. The Battle Honour YENANGYAUN was awarded for actions at Yenangyaun during the defence of Burma in 1942 and the distinction BURMA 1942-43, a Theatre Honour, for actions throughout the period 1942-43 that included the Arakan Campaign in 1943. On 7 March, the Burma Army evacuated Rangoon after implementing a scorched earth plan to deny the Japanese the use of its facilities. They installed a nominally independent Burmese government under Ba Maw, and reformed the Burma Independence Army on a more regular basis as the Burma National Army under General Aung San. The Japanese, while having lost their air superiority as the war progressed, were definitely still a threat. To cover this break-out, Kimura ordered Thirty-Third Army to mount a diversionary offensive across the Sittang, although the entire army could muster the strength of barely a regiment. On the afternoon of 2 May 1945 the monsoon rains began in full force. The Japanese invasion of Burma was the opening phase of the Burma campaign in the South-East Asian theatre of World War II, which took place over four years from 1942 to 1945. However, they misjudged the date on which the Japanese were to attack, and the strength they would use against some objectives. Initially governed as part of British India, Burma was formed into a separate colony under the Government of India Act 1935. , It was the greatest defeat to that date in Japanese history. They then advanced northwards, outflanking successive British defensive positions. Part of the force was left behind in Moulmein and had to swim the river. The battalions of the Burma Rifles which formed most of the 1st Burma Division were originally raised as internal security troops only, from among minority communities in Burma such as the Karens. Late in February, the 7th Indian Division leading IV Corps, seized crossings at Nyaungu near Pakokku. Der Burmafeldzug war ein Feldzug während des Pazifikkriegs im Zweiten Weltkrieg. , The Japanese troops crossed the Chindwin River on 8 March. This was a blow to British plans as it endangered the prospects of reaching Yangon before the onset of the monsoon, expected at the beginning of May.  From 1 April, NCAC's operations stopped, and its units returned to China and India. The break-out cost the Japanese nearly 10,000 men, half the strength of Twenty-Eighth Army. Please read our short guide how to send a book to Kindle. US ARMY BATTLE CASUALTIES AND NON-BATTLE DEATHS IN WORLD WAR 2: Final Report. Their troops (particularly 15th and 31st Divisions) were starving, and during the monsoon, disease rapidly spread among them. Die japanischen Truppen der 15. The Corps then prepared to capture two railway tunnels linking Maungdaw with the Kalapanzin valley but the Japanese struck first. In practice, both government and army were strictly controlled by the Japanese authorities. The army consisted of the highly regarded 33rd Division and the 55th Division, although both divisions were weakened for several weeks by detachments to other operations. One of Ma Guanggui's nephews was Ma Yeye, a son of Ma Guanghua and he narrated the history of Panglong including the Japanese attack. Kimura threw Allied plans into confusion by refusing to fight at the Chindwin River. The Royal Air Force wing operating from Magwe was crippled by the withdrawal of the radar and radio-intercept units to India and the Japanese soon gained supremacy in the air.  Most of these losses were the result of disease, malnutrition and exhaustion. The Japanese launched several offensives during the month, which were repulsed. A new formation HQ, the Indian XXXIII Corps under Lieutenant-General Montagu Stopford, now took over operations on this front. Although the front-line units had maintained some semblance of order, many improvised units and rear-area troops had dissolved into a disorderly rout. They attempted to hold the Bilin River and other fallback lines as they did so, but had too few troops to avoid being continually outflanked. From this point, the advance down the main road to Rangoon faced little organised opposition. "M3 and M5 Stuart Light Tank 1940–45". The British had placed ambushes or artillery concentrations on the routes the Japanese were to use.  In previous years there used to be lull during the monsoon period but not this year (1944–45). 3. preview • burma : geography & people. Hundreds of men drowned trying to cross the swollen Sittang on improvised bamboo floats and rafts. The Allies suffered 12,500 casualties, including 2,269 killed. On 21 December 1941, Thailand had signed a military alliance with Japan. War was imminent and, shortly after the Inniskillings had … A new corps, the Indian XXXIV Corps, under Lieutenant-General Ouvry Lindfield Roberts was raised and assigned to Fourteenth Army for further operations. On the eastern part of the front, in the Battle of Yunnan-Burma Road, the Chinese 200th Division held up the Japanese for a time around Toungoo, but after its fall the road was open for motorised troops of the Japanese 56th Division to shatter the Chinese Sixth Army to the east in the Karenni States and advance northward through the Shan States to capture Lashio, outflanking the Allied defensive lines and cutting off the Chinese armies from Yunnan. Panglong, a Chinese Muslim town in British Burma, was entirely destroyed by the Japanese invaders in their invasion of Burma. They drove the Chinese 55th Division from Loikaw, taking many prisoners. The Japanese 143 Infantry Regiment (from 55th Division) then launched overland attacks on the airfields at Tavoy and Mergui in Tenasserim. ISBN: 13: 978-1472811257. At one stage, Alexander proposed that the 7th Armoured Brigade and one infantry brigade accompany the Chinese armies into Yunnan, but he was persuaded that the armoured brigade would quickly become ineffective once it was cut off from India. In later months, 70 to 80% of those who reached India were afflicted with diseases such as dysentery, smallpox, malaria or cholera, with 30% "desperately so".. The command on the front was rearranged in November 1944. They damaged communications of the Japanese in northern Burma, cutting the railway for possibly two weeks but they suffered heavy casualties. Arakan Campaign communications 1942-43. La ĉi-suba teksto estas aŭtomata traduko de la artikolo Arakan Campaign 1942–43 article en la angla Vikipedio, farita per la sistemo GramTrans on 2016-06-13 10:45:24.  Though the results were questioned the operation was used to propaganda effect, particularly to insist that British and Indian soldiers could live, move and fight as effectively as the Japanese in the jungle, doing much to restore morale among Allied troops. Apart from the "Hump" airlift, these bore no fruit until so near the end of the war that they made little contribution to the defeat of Japan. 33, Sino-Japanese Air War 1937–45, see 1941 and 1942, Burma Campaign, Orbat for 1942 campaign, Japan, Commonwealth, Chinese, USA, A Forgotten Invasion: Thailand in Shan State, 1941–45, Thailand's Northern Campaign in the Shan States 1942–45, Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany, Rape during the Soviet occupation of Poland, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Japanese_invasion_of_Burma&oldid=1000558580, Military history of Thailand during World War II, Military history of Burma during World War II, Military history of India during World War II, Land battles and operations of World War II involving the United Kingdom, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from July 2018, Pages containing London Gazette template with parameter supp set to y, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 15 January 2021, at 16:53. Stilwell arrived … Main article: Burma Campaign 1942–43. As the threat of war grew, the Japanese sought links with potential allies in Burma. • planning & conduct of the allied offn. Despatch "Operations in Assam and Burma from 23RD June 1944 to 12TH November 1944" Supplement to the London Gazette, 3 March 1951 pg 1711, Despatch "Operations in Burma 12th November 1944 to 15th August 1945" Supplement to the London Gazette, 6 April 1951 pg 1885, Despatch "Operations in Burma and North East India 16th November 1943 to 22nd June 1944" Supplement to the London Gazette, 13 March 1951 pg 1361, American-British-Dutch-Australian Command, Learn how and when to remove this template message, lines of communication in North-eastern India, Barnaby Phillips follows the life of one of the forgotten heroes of World War II, Facts on File: World War II in the China-Burma-India theater, 远征军入缅作战简介_远征军入缅作战的时间死亡人数_远征军入缅作战的意义结果损失 – 趣历史 – 趣历史, Japanese conquest of Burma, December 1941 – May 1942. The Japanese naturally wished to cut this link.. The most important was the replacement of General Kawabe at Burma Area Army by Hyotaro Kimura. British plans for the defence of British Far Eastern possessions involved the construction of airfields linking Singapore and Malaya with India. The leading troops of IV Corps and XXXIII Corps met at Milestone 109 on the Dimapur-Imphal road on 22 June, and the siege of Imphal was raised.  The Japanese attack caused the Hui Mu family to seek refuge in Panglong but they were driven out again to Yunnan when the Japanese attacked Panglong. The Burma Campaign in the South-East Asian Theatre of World War II took place over four years from 1942 to 1945. According to Zaloga, all but one tank of the two regiments of the 7th Armoured Brigade had been lost. The commander of Burma Corps, Lieutenant General William Slim, tried to mount a counter-offensive on the western part of the front, but his troops were repeatedly outflanked and forced to fight their way out of encirclement. With their forces cut off from almost all sources of supply, the Allied commanders finally decided to evacuate their forces from Burma. After the fall of Rangoon, the Allies tried to make a stand in central Burma. General Archibald Wavell, the Commander in Chief in India, was making plans to mount offensives into Burma even as Allied troops were retreating into India. Although the Japanese retreat over the Irrawaddy forced the Allies to completely change their plans, such was the Allies' material superiority that this was done. The British Civil Government of Burma had meanwhile fallen back to Myitkyina in Northern Burma, accompanied by many British, Anglo-Indian and Indian civilians. Two brigades went to Imphal, the other went to Dimapur from where it sent a detachment to Kohima.  By contrast, many private individuals such as the Assam Tea Planters Association did their best to provide aid. On 22 January 1942, the main body of the Japanese 55th Division began the main attack westward from Rahaeng in Thailand across the Kawkareik Pass. This newly completed link was being used to move aid and munitions to the Chinese Nationalist forces of Chiang Kai-Shek which had been fighting the Japanese for several years. The Allies were also hampered by the progressive breakdown of the civil government in the areas they held, and the large numbers of refugees. They broke off the attack and retreated to Pyawbwe. Rangoon before the steady Allied advance, the Chindits passed from Slim to Stilwell of these losses the. And rear-area troops had dissolved into a separate colony under the torrential monsoon rains and IV Corps and XXXIII seized... 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