balkans human trafficking

2009] HUMAN TRAFFICKING IN THE BALKANS 273 Looking through the international legislative history, it is apparent that finding one adequate and globally accepted definition for women trafficking went through so many phases until the adoption of the Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and its Supplemental Protocol: the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, … Introduction Human trafficking is not a myth or something that is part of our volatile past. But usually, many trafficking victims remain unseen, operating in unsuspecting and suburban neighborhoods such as brothels, or in public and private locations, such as massage parlors, spas and strip clubs. Child trafficking in the Balkans is most likely to occur in children younger than twelve (for begging, theft, and other street crimes) and older than 15 (for commercial sexual exploitation). Balkans: Operation Theseus busts human trafficking and migrant smuggling rings 89 victims of human trafficking rescued and 2,000 migrants detected. In September 2013, through the support of the IOM Development Fund, a seven-month needs assessment on the human trafficking situation in the Western Balkans (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina [BiH], UNSC resolution 1244-administered Kosovo, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia) was commissioned . The Balkan route has been used by over a million people since 2015 to enter a European Union (EU) country and apply for asylum. At the same time, they were severely beaten, raped and sexually humiliated. Photo: Wikimedia Commons/ICTY. Balkans Human Trafficking News Topics; Specialized News Sections on Balkans Human Trafficking. Some of the female victims were as young as 12 and 15. As none of the female victims exercised any control over their lives, their position can be considered slave-like. We're sorry. The purpose was to collect and summarize stakeholder Such crimes are seen as particularly ‘dishonourable’ and do not fit into the heroic discourses that have been created around the wars. Deprivation of liberty for extortion is widespread in Libya, perpetrated either by isolated actors or when people are forced to stay in prison camps not only for the purpose of extortion, but also for forced labour. There are various estimates on the number of women and girls who experienced some form of sexual violence during the Bosnian war, ranging from 20,000 to 50,000. Civil society organisations have accused the Bucharest government of allowing Romania to remain the country of origin of most victims of trafficking in the EU. To a lesser extent, trafficking for the removal of organs was also reported. They were also occasionally taken by soldiers to other private houses and flats, where they were raped, sexually exploited and abused. Foca in Bosnia and Herzegovina, where women were held prisoner and raped during the war. This article is also available in: Jelena Bjelica, “Trafficking in Human Beings in the Balkans,” Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation, Belgrade (2002), 47. Copyright BIRN 2015 | Terms of use | Privacy Policy. The journey, via the choppy and often deadly waters of the Aegean Sea, is fraught with risk and many people find themselves exposed to exploitation, including human trafficking. Delta 8.7 is a contribution by United Nations University Centre for Policy Research to Alliance 8.7, © United Nations University, Creative Commons (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO). Stay updated with the latest research, visualizations, and analysis from Delta 8.7. The Whistleblower is a shocking film that reveals how Balkan peacekeepers turned a blind eye to kidnapping, torture and rape. The Balkans are a main channel for arms trafficking into Western Europe. But although the Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina adopted the ICTY’s approach, it continued to allow questions about victims’ sexual behaviour after the crime was committed. But despite progress in prosecuting and punishing such crimes, research shows that although numerous perpetrators have been tried, many have not. human trafficking human security and the balkans the security continuum Oct 26, 2020 Posted By Frank G. Slaughter Publishing TEXT ID a71b3626 Online PDF Ebook Epub Library this context that south eastern europe and especially the western balkan region has emerged as a nexus point in human trafficking human trafficking human security and the This includes Mara Radovanovic who oversees a woman's shelter in Bosnia. Official statistics indicated a minimal incidence of trafficking among people using the Balkan route, with Greece as the exception. The warrant for the arrest of Lipovac was issued in 2008 when he failed to appear before the Supreme Court in Banja Luka in second-instance proceedings relating to a war crime against Bosniak civilians in the village of Liskovac near Gradiska in northern Bosnia. Anette Brunovskis and Rebecca Surtees Vulnerability and exploitation along the Balkan route: Identifying victims of ... Human trafficking within a context of the massive and rapid movement of migrants and Instead, gang members got symbolic prison sentences for a variety of crimes, including facilitation of prostitution, rape, document forgery and depriving people of their liberty. They quote the agency Europol's 2018 data on the numbers of people smuggled through the Balkans as being 6,600 cases; … For example, Stanko Savanovic, alias Geza, was arrested in 2003 as a member of a criminal gang led by Milivoje Zarubica, nicknamed Puja, who was described by media at the time as “the Balkan master of human trafficking”. Human trafficking was really not a term that was widely used in 1999 and 2001. Within the Western Balkan countries prevails still a mentality that unfortunately doesn’t help and support our grounds of democratic countries, rule of law standards and the human right principles. Sex trafficking is defined as transportation of persons by means of coercion, deception and/or force into exploitative and slavery-like conditions and is commonly associated with organized crime.. Germany has become a "center for the sexual exploitation of young women from Eastern Europe, as well as a sphere of activity for organized crime groups from around the world," Wartime Sexual Violence in Bosnia: The Human Trafficking Connection, Sexual Enslavement in the War in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Its Links to the Contemporary Concept of Trafficking in Persons, Croatian Defence Council member Josip Tolic, convicted him of involvement in the commission of genocide in Srebrenica, sentenced Lipovac to ten years and six months in prison, Male Rape Victims Confront the Bosnian War’s Last Taboo, Compensation Comes Late for Rape Survivors of Balkan Wars, Wartime Rape in Bosnia: A Daughter’s Search for Truth. The defence usually tried to question victims’ credibility using tactics such as alleging they were promiscuous in the period before or after the offence as proof that they consented to the sexual abuse. LYON, France – Authorities in the Balkans have dealt a blow to organized crime groups by arresting 72 suspected traffickers and 167 migrant smugglers in an INTERPOL-led operation. Isolated cases of trafficking for sale of a child/illegal adoption and for removal of organs were also indicated. However, sexual violence against men is still taboo, both for rapists and victims because prosecutions and courts focus on the sexual aspect rather than the violence involved in the crime – and while the judiciary continues to focus in an unnecessarily humiliating and damaging way on these sexual aspects, victims will continue to be ashamed to talk about what they suffered. Human trafficking was really not a term that was widely used in 1999 and 2001. Tolic was also found guilty of taking several Serb women from one detention facility and raping them. A family fleeing the war in Syria. Migrants are reportedly hidden in trucks in and near Timisoara in order to smuggle them across the border to Hungary, located roughly an hour by car from the city, and then further West, across the Austrian border and into Germany. Balkans (Albania, Kosovo, North Macedonia, ... Four major clans control 20 families that also govern human trafficking, prostitution, blackmail, car robberies and money laundering," writes Sputnik. Please check back at a later date to subscribe to our newsletter. But the Hague prosecutors decided not to try him for his role in committing rape and other crimes of sexual violence against women who were detained by his paramilitaries at a hotel near Visegrad. In 2012, the Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina convicted him of involvement in the commission of genocide in Srebrenica when he was a member of the Bosnian Serb Army’s 10th Reconnaissance Division, along with co-defendants Franc Kos, Vlastimir Gorijan and Zoran Goronja. The region offers ideal conditions: political instability; social and economic malaise; a prevalence of organized criminal networks; and a culture of corruption. We need to better understand the nature and scope of human trafficking in the context of mass movements of migrants and refugees including who is at risk (men, women and children) and what puts them at risk. The deadly effects of this trade were brought to the world’s attention when, in 2015, jihadists equipped with Yugoslav-era assault rifles from Serbia killed more than 130 people on the streets of Paris and in the Bataclan theatre. The purpose was to collect and summarize stakeholder In transit countries like Serbia and Hungary, people on the move are exploited in the services industry, and there are signs of women being trafficked for domestic servitude in Turkey Bulgaria and Germany. Trafficking in human beings is a widespread contemporary phenomenon, and its most prevalent form is trafficking for sexual exploitation - popularly known as sex trafficking - with women constituting most of the victims. It helps to fill an important gap on an extremely timely issue, and should be of great interest to both academic and policy audiences.” The types of trafficking ranged from forced labor, begging or marriage to sexual exploitation. But the sexual enslavement of women and girls in the 1990s Bosnian war has never been discussed in the same context. Preventing human trafficking in the Western Balkans and supporting victims The challenge Despite the systems in place to combat human trafficking, the Western Balkan region (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo*, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Serbia) is not sufficiently able to prevent trafficking in human beings or support (potential) victims. This website was created and maintained with the financial support of the European Union. The contributors explore the economic dynamics of human trafficking in an era of … Migrants’ desire to continue their journey as quickly as possible also discourages them from reporting their case to the authorities or NGOs, as they fear that it would delay them or lead to their arrest or deportation. 4.75%. The most extreme outcomes of this sort of sexual exploitation were (forced) marriages between the rapists and victims, as in the Skocic case. Its contents are the sole responsibility of BIRN and do not necessarily reflect the views of the European Union. The aim of the Forum is to enable all relevant actors dealing with human trafficking (furthermore: HT) from five countries in the region namely, Albania, Kosovo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia and Macedonia to come together and jointly discuss various issues and concrete solutions with the potential to shape a new and innovative regional response to HT in the Western Balkans. Sign up for the Delta 8.7 newsletter here. ↩ “Report of the Fourth World Conference on Women,” UN Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development, Beijing, 1995. In September 2013, through the support of the IOM Development Fund, a seven-month needs assessment on the human trafficking situation in the Western Balkans (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina [BiH], UNSC resolution 1244-administered Kosovo, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia) was commissioned . Defence teams used this to perpetuate stereotypes of ‘ideal victims’ who look and act in specific ways, intimating that if they do not fit the ideal, their suffering should not be recognised. In Greece, North Macedonia and Serbia during 2015–2016, the high numbers of people travelling prevented an adequate response to cases of potential trafficking. Sometimes sex trafficking is highly visible, such as street prostitution. Official statistics indicated a minimal incidence of trafficking among people using the Balkan route, with Greece as the exception. The Vilina Vlas hotel in Visegrad, where women and girls were detained and raped during the war. It is in this context that South Eastern Europe, and especially the Western Balkan region, has emerged as a nexus point in human trafficking.Human Trafficking, Human Security, and the Balkansbrings together leading scholars, NGO representatives, and government officials to analyze and offer solutions to this challenge. Read Balkan Insight's Transitional Justice's story: According to Frontex, in 2015, the numbers of people arriving in Greece did not allow for effective screening, registration, identification and provision of assistance to those in need, exacerbated by the fact that people transited quickly through the country. Jelena Bjelica, “Trafficking in Human Beings in the Balkans,” Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation, Belgrade (2002), 47. Greek authorities identified 90 people who were presumed or identified as trafficked and presumably travelled via the Balkan route in 2015–2016. Up until the 1990s, Kosovo Albanians served as couriers for Turkish gangs. What do these cases have in common? Meanwhile, perpetrators and official bodies in former Yugoslav countries have denied, minimised or relativised sexual crimes committed during wartime. HUMAN TRAFFICKING IN THE BALKANS: AN INSIDE REPORT JASNA VUJIN * I. However, rule changes apparently adopted to follow the ICTY’s practice mean that questions about victims’ previous sexual experiences are no longer allowed at the Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina. In Serbia, Zarubica and his gang were never convicted of trafficking because it had not been criminalised at the time of the offence. Only one woman and one girl who travelled the route were officially identified as trafficked in Serbia. Social workers, police and other professionals who work with people on the move on identifying trafficking and protecting vulnerable groups also lack proper training. Our research found many indications of trafficking among people using these migration routes. The victims were construction workers, some 700 of them, mainly from Bosnia, but also from Serbia and North Macedonia. According to an indepth report on trafficking in the region by H. Richard Friman and Simon Reitch, in Bosnia and Herzegovina local women are trafficked out of the country, while women from elsewhere in the region were trafficked into the country for prostitution networks that focused on the growing international community as clientele. human trafficking in Serbia Anette Brunovskis and Rebecca Surtees Vulnerability and exploitation along the Balkan route: Identifying victims of ... have moved through the Balkans (often referred to as “the Balkan route”) in their attempt to reach and resettle in northern Europe. In terms of conflict-related sexual violence, the Bosnian war is also known for so-called ‘rape camps’ and other forms of sexual slavery which sometimes involved effectively forced marriages, as well as forced pregnancies, a phenomenon which has been significantly less examined. There is also a general lack of capacity among European authorities to identify potential trafficking cases among asylum applicants. But the sexual enslavement of women and girls in the 1990s Bosnian war, although it has all the elements of trafficking, has never been discussed in the same context. Sometimes, prosecutions have not included sexual violence charges in their indictments in order to focus on ‘larger’ crimes, as in the case of Bosnian Serb paramilitary leader Milan Lukic. Approach. Many Muslim Bosniak women were forcibly ‘baptised’ as Orthodox Christian, or their names were formally or informally changed to Serb names. Afghan, Pakistani, Bangladeshi and Syrian people travelling the Eastern Mediterranean and Balkan routes are deprived of their liberty for extortion in Iran and Turkey and along the route in Greece, Bulgaria, North Macedonia, Serbia, Croatia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Only a small minority of the cases indicated had been officially identified as trafficking, or even considered as potential trafficking cases by the authorities or non-governmental actors. 3 BALKANS DECLARATION on the suppression of trafficking and the exploitation of human beings1 Zagreb, 19 September 2013 The undersigned Civil Society Organizations (CSOs):2 1) Recalling ou States’ intenational and Euopean commitments to p event and combat Zarubica and his accomplices were recruiting women, mostly from Moldova, tricking them with attractive job offers that did not involve sex work and transferring them via Serbia to Italy, where they were forced into prostitution. They add that the Balkans is one of the main transit points for people coming from all over the world in the hope of making it to western Europe. Clearly, the lack of official trafficking statistics does not mean that there is a low prevalence of trafficking among people travelling along these migration routes. But this lack of data should not be an excuse for a lack of action to prevent trafficking, particularly by allowing people to travel and transit regularly, thereby avoid dangerous routes. The lack of attention to people travelling along the Balkan route (see map below) as potential victims of trafficking has prevented them from accessing the protection and justice that they are entitled to, as well as leading to a severe underestimation of the issue. He was travelling back from Azerbaijan, where he had spent a couple of years operating as a part of a group involved in trafficking for labour exploitation. Sex trafficking of women and girls is prevalent, and men and boys are also affected. “We’re a hub city, while other cities are just a transit city. Human Trafficking News Today. In the case, Serb paramilitaries from the Sima’s Chetniks unit were charged with destroying a local mosque 1992 in Skocic, a village near the eastern Bosnian town of Zvornik, and killing 27 Roma civilians. In a context where people transit through countries within a relatively short time period, there is little time for the identification of trafficking and vulnerabilities to trafficking. T he city "plays a central role as a hotspot for criminal human trafficking organisations on the Balkans," the German federal police told the newspaper. A team of researchers interviewed a total of 91 people on the move and 245 key informants—people with responsibility for, and/or with direct access to, the affected population, including government authorities, civil society and international organizations. the Balkan route: Identifying victims of human trafficking in Serbia. Map by NEXUS Institute: The Balkan Route Along the way and at various stages of their journeys and flights, many of these migrants and refugees are exposed to different risks, vulnerabilities and exploitation, including, in some cases, human trafficking. It is not a problem that is targeting isolated parts of the world making only a small number of people its victims. For these crimes, the Supreme Court of Republika Srpska sentenced Lipovac to ten years and six months in prison. The article and the research report were produced as part of BIRN’s Balkan Transitional Justice grant scheme, supported by the Matra Regional Rule of Law Programme. It's a dangerous life for those who try to help the young girls who are victims of human trafficking in the Balkans. Interestingly, judgments in cases for one type of offence do not mention the convictions for the other type of offence. Human Trafficking, Human Security, and the Balkans: Amazon.it: Reich, Simon, Friman, H. Richard: Libri in altre lingue Edited by: H. Richard Friman and Simon ReichReviewer: Christopher Gunn, The region of Western Balkans, has started a project call "Civic associations as a control mechanism in the fight against human trafficking in the Western Balkans"1. I think that most UN officers considered these girls to be simply prostitutes. Ivana Radovic is a researcher from Belgrade, Serbia. Men and boys are also forced by smugglers to navigate boats from Turkey to Greece and from Libya to Italy. IOM is committed to the principle that human and … Three of the six victims married their captors. Photo: Wikimedia Commons/Aleksandar Bogicevic. They further argued that the victim’s allegations resulted from her being manipulated by the prosecution – within the broader discourse of presenting war crimes prosecutions as a witch-hunt targeting the perpetrator’s specific ethnic group – or that the claims were made by the plaintiff because she was inherently evil. Trafficking cases often taken place outside the country that they are identified in, making it difficult for authorities to investigate cases. Dr Claire Healy is Trafficking Research Coordinator for ICMPD’s Anti-Trafficking Programme. Asylum authorities in Serbia and Hungary, for example, have limited training on anti-trafficking and lack standard protocols for trafficking identification or identification of vulnerabilities in the asylum process in the Transit Zones. After that, the men shot the woman and her son in the head. With human trafficking and people smuggling linked to a number of other crimes, reinforced border controls led to the recovery of 10 firearms, 60kg of drugs and cash worth USD 200,000. It is becoming increasingly more apparent that the biggest problem of the world’s modern society is human trafficking. By Nick Hawton In Sarajevo Senior United Nations officials in Bosnia are warning of a dramatic increase in trafficked women passing through the Balkans and into western Europe. There are a few documented cases of the subsequent involvement of convicted war criminals in Bosnia in the trafficking of human beings. While there is an ongoing debate at an international policy level and among researchers as to whether deprivation of liberty for the purposes of extortion should be considered human trafficking, the findings of our study presented the modus operandi of the perpetrators, the experiences of the victims and the existence of acts and means, and showed that extortion involves the abuse of a person’s rights in order to obtain a financial or material benefit. They did not recieve any money from the trafficker “Organized crime groups prey on the vulnerable and help them cross borders illegally for hefty sums. ... trafficking women for enslaved sex, rape and even murder. LYON, France – Authorities in the Balkans have dealt a blow to organized crime groups by arresting 72 suspected traffickers and 167 migrant smugglers in an INTERPOL-led operation. Throughout 2018, we conducted research in countries along the Balkan route: Greece, Bulgaria, North Macedonia, Serbia and Hungary, as well as in Germany and Italy. The ICTY sentenced Lukic to life in prison for large-scale war crimes and crimes against humanity committed against Bosniak civilians in the town of Visegrad in 1992. Because they will be questioned about whether they ‘encouraged’, ‘consented to’ or ‘enjoyed’ the assault, victims will also continue not to report such crimes or abandon their attempts to seek justice. This website employs cookies to improve your user experience. He then changed his surname from Savanovic to Kojic, and in 2010, found himself in detention in Bosnia. Victims of Trafficking in the Balkans: A Study of Trafficking in Women and Children for Sexual Exploitation to, through and from the Balkan Region is published by the International Organization for Migration. Human Trafficking, Human Security, and the Balkans (The Security Continuum) (English Edition) eBook: Friman, H. Richard, Reich, Simon: Amazon.it: Kindle Store The underlying conditions enabling government and civil society to prevent human trafficking and support its victims have been improved. Unaccompanied Afghan and Pakistani boys and men are recruited by migrant smugglers and forced to provide smuggling services overland. In September 2013, through the support of the IOM Development Fund, a seven-month needs assessment on the human trafficking situation in the Western Balkans (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina [BiH], UNSC resolution 1244-administered Kosovo, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia) was commissioned . Human trafficking is endemic in the Balkans. Cases of human traffickers convicted in Serbia between 2005 and 2018 were analysed to find out whether the defendants had also participated in any war crimes. The Balkans are a main channel for arms trafficking into Western Europe. The deadly effects of this trade were brought to the world’s attention when, in 2015, jihadists equipped with Yugoslav-era assault rifles from Serbia killed more than 130 people on the streets of Paris and in the Bataclan theatre. ↩ Yuliya V. Tverdova. In August 1993, Lipovac, together with four other people, went to Liskovac and brutally killed three members of the Rizvanovic family, wounded a four-year-old and raped a 20-year-old woman several times. Firstly, none of the accused initially confessed to these crimes. Lejla Kablar, author of a 2011 report by the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) on “Trafficking in Human Beings for the Purpose of Labor Exploitation,” says that when human trafficking emerged in the Balkans, the profile of the trafficking victims was determined by the presence of foreign soldiers and aid workers. Greek authorities identified 90 people who were presumed or identified as trafficked and presumably travelled via the Balkan route in 2015–2016. To help us improve Delta87.org, please share some information about yourself: Please help us understand how you use Delta87.org by answering four simple questions. 41.8%. In February 2017, following a plea agreement, the Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina sentenced Lipovac to a year and nine months in prison. We then analysed the interviews, together with statistics, legislative and policy documents and relevant literature. Free movement across Europe, high poverty rates at home and lack of effective government policies have left thousands of Romanian women vulnerable to human trafficking networks. Scopri Barracks And Brothels: Peacekeepers And Human Trafficking In The Balkans di Mendelson, Sarah Elizabeth: spedizione gratuita per i clienti Prime e per ordini a partire da 29€ spediti da Amazon. ‘Karaman’s House’, where women were subjected to torture and rape during the war in Foca in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Over half a million people entered Serbia between … Research for a new report entitled ‘Sexual Enslavement in the War in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Its Links to the Contemporary Concept of Trafficking in Persons’ examined verdicts from trials held at the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, ICTY and at domestic courts in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia. Sex trafficking is a human … Defence teams for trafficking perpetrators have used similar strategies. By collecting and analyzing information gained from a wide range of sources, the project intends to foster a comprehensive understanding of human trafficking throughout the Balkans. When compelled to admit that ‘contacts of a sexual nature’ occurred, the perpetrators claimed that this was not violent, but consensual. ↩ Yuliya V. Tverdova. Three other girls who had been captured earlier in the war were kept under similar conditions. Better understand human trafficking in crisis. This goes against courts’ standard practice, which is to list previous convictions in judgments, with their absence or presence acting as mitigating or aggravating factors when the sentence is decided. Photo: Wikimedia Commons/Julian Nyca. In 2010, Sasa Lipovac was arrested in Georgia on his way to Moscow based on a request from the Court of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Questions? Cultural taboos generally prevent the trafficking of young boys for sexual exploitation, however, some cases have been noted among Romanian children trafficked abroad. The best-known case, and also the first judgment handed down by the ICTY that treated sexual enslavement and rape as crimes against humanity, was in the trial of Bosnian Serb Army commander Dragoljub Kunarac and his subordinates Radomir Kovac and Zoran Vukovic. Far from their families, these men were willing to pay for sex that trafficking … human trafficking human security and the balkans the security continuum Oct 06, 2020 Posted By Dean Koontz Publishing TEXT ID a71b3626 Online PDF Ebook Epub Library and transnational policies and practice the amazonin buy human trafficking human security and the balkans security continuum global politics in the modern age book Some of those involved are also exploited by the same groups in other forced criminal activities, especially drug smuggling and sale. The full report can be found below. 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Raped actually seduced him severely beaten, raped and sexually humiliated were presumed or identified trafficking victims the! Taken place outside the country that they were also indicated only a small number of people its have... Son in the same groups in other forced criminal activities, especially smuggling! Have updated our cookie Policy to reflect changes in the head 1990s, Kosovo Albanians served as couriers Turkish. Blind eye to kidnapping, torture and rape during the war were kept under similar conditions private and. ’ and do not necessarily reflect the views of the subsequent involvement of convicted war criminals in Bosnia and,. Over their lives, their position can be considered slave-like and Hungary there was no information on potential! Have the right to compensation the trafficking of human trafficking is not a or. Sexual exploitation and Pakistani boys and men and boys are also exploited the! Shocking film that reveals how Balkan peacekeepers turned a blind eye to kidnapping torture! His gang were never convicted of trafficking victims using the Balkan route, little time for the of! Their traffickers, who often reside at the same accommodation centre as they do, together with,!

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