solar cell assignment

The following investigations on PV system aspects implicitly assume the application of crystalline cells. Thin-film modules for power applications are not yet considerably cheaper than crystalline modules. Organic solar cells are not yet commercially available. Figure (24): Schematic representation of crystalline solar cell supplying a resistive load. Often their natural ability to convert radiation to heat is enhanced in some way or another (by being painted black, for example) and a system for transferring the heat to a different location is generally added. As of 2005, for example, China accounted for almost 30% of global growth where the European community accounted for just 5%. There, a n-doped semiconductor contact collects the conduction-band electrons and drives them to the external … The heat remains in the sun and is instrumental in maintaining the thermonuclear reaction. The focusing collectors by their very nature can create much higher temperatures and need more safeguards to protect their silicon components. Solar energy can be harnessed using Solar Cells. The net effect is that of a pump moving heat from one area into another, and the first is accordingly cooled. Hope for bulk solar electricity should not be abandoned, however, for recent scientific advances have created a solar cell with an efficiency of 28.2% efficiency in the laboratory. Explain what depletion region is and build in electric field? As soon as the solar cell is exposed to sunlight, the solar energy which is present in the form of light photons is absorbed by semi conductor materials. In practice, a backup power supply is usually added, too, for the situations when the amount of energy required is greater than both what is being produced and what is stored in the container. The exceptions are geothermal energy, and nuclear fission and fusion. Heating a building requires much more energy than heating a building’s water, so much larger panels are necessary. These two components are a collector and a storage unit. Electrical Engineering Assignment Help will be an additional option for you that raise your knowledge in a suitable way. As early as the 7th century B.C., people used simple magnifying glasses to concentrate the light of the sun into beams so hot they would cause wood to catch fire. The rating varies with the size and efficiency of the applied solar cells and the number of parallel cell strings within a module. V p increases logarithmically with I s and thus illumination. Isc and Uoc are short-circuiting current and open-circuit voltage, respectively. A solar cell is an electronic device which directly converts sunlight into electricity. Today, efficiency values of small crystalline silicon cells in the laboratory can be as high as 25% under STC [54]. People have harnessed solar energy for centuries. The photovoltaic cell (PV cell) offers a limitless and environmentally friendly source of electricity. Solar Night Light: Solar night lamp uses the solar energy to power up the night lamp. Multicrystalline silicon cells are, Slightly cheaper, but have a somewhat lower efficiency. View MME201002 RET Review assignment.pdf from MECHANICAL 3613 at Capital University of Science and Technology, Islamabad. Glass-Tedler modules typically are standard modules, produced in large quantities. They are arrays of solar panels arranged in a simple plane. For p doped silicon boron is added and for n doped silicon phosphorus is added. Most of our tools are designed to be driven by electricity, so if you can create electricity through solar power, you can run almost anything with solar power. Over 100 years ago in France, a scientist used heat from a solar collector to make steam to drive a steam engine. Solar cars depend on PV cells to convert sunlight into electricity to drive electric motors. A solar cell provides direct current (DC) electricity that can be used to power DC motors and light bulbs among other things. Government of Bangladesh is working towards achieving “Power i.e. Glass is applied when the back side of the modules is desired to be transparent at the cost of reduced cooling of the solar cells and higher weight of the module. Investigating Solar Cells: Journal Assignment The Sun radiates, or sends out as light, an enormous amount of energy. The second is its effect on the environment. It is due to this withdrawal of support that has left the impression that solar power cannot succeed without substantial subsidies. Although they can produce far greater amounts of energy at a single point than the flat-plane collectors can, they lose some of the radiation that the flat-plane panels do not. A partial list of solar applications includes space heating and cooling through solar architecture, potable water via distillation and disinfection, day lighting, solar hot water, solar cooking, and high temperature process heat for industrial purposes. Cu2S/CdS disappeared soon due to stability problems related to electrochemical decomposition. Fraunhofer-Institute fur Solar Energiessysteme (FhG-ISE), Photovoltaic Systems, March, 1995 2. Solar power is a very high efficiency and the heat energy can be stored in the liquid form. Crystalline wafer-type silicon cells are expected to dominate the world market at least for the current data. speed up to … Only a minuscule fraction of the available solar energy is used. In today’s climate of growing energy needs and increasing environmental concern, alternatives to the use of non-renewable and polluting fossil fuels have to be investigated. If it maintains its efficiency in the uncontrolled environment of the outside world, and if it does not have a tendency to break down, it will be economical for power companies to build solar power facilities after all. –          Deposition of antireflection coating. This would supply 2.4 kW to 12.1 billion people. Inside the module, the cells are connected in series and parallel by means of copper strips in order to achieve practically applicable voltage and current. Heat energy can be stored in a liquid, such as water, or in a packed bed. Numerically, it is capable of producing the raw power required to satisfy the entire planet’s energy needs. Solar energy can be applied to all four of these tasks with different levels of success. Also, the rate at which this market is expanding is encouraging – from 85 MW in 1995 to 1.1 GW globally in 2005. The interconnected cells are embedded between EVA (ethyl vinyl acetate) sheets or in cast resin in order to protect them from mechanical stress. The assembly of PV array is to be emphasized; the term PV generator is also applied. Everything from changes in local rain conditions to another Ice Age has been predicted as a result of producing solar energy on this scale. In the years to come the US and the USSR space programs played an important role in the R&D of solar cells, since they were the main energy source to power their satellites. When the electron holes come together at the P-n junction, voltage is generated. Unfortunately, at this scale, the production of solar energy would have some unpredictable negative environmental effects. Together these two countries, with Japan’s sunshine program and Germany’s 100.000 solar roofs program along with several government subsidies account for a full 69% of the world market for PV as of 2005. How To Make a Solar Car: This project shows the making of a simple solar car. For the description of system performance and energy yield, the concept of efficiency is usually not applied. Figure (26): I-U curve of a crystalline silicon photovoltaic cell. These electrons are occupying a band of energy called. Nevertheless, most results may also be extended to other types of PV cells. This application is a very simple adjustment from the normal fossil fuel water heaters. Practically, it can be adjusted to power nearly everything except transportation with very little adjustment, and even transportation with some modest modifications to the current general system of travel. In its most common application, it is used to convert light energy to electrical energy, and it thereby serves as a source of de power. These devices will utilize a chemical that changes phase from solid to liquid at a temperature that can be produced by the solar collector. Photovoltaic cells are made of special materials calle… As the primary element of construction of solar panels, silicon, is the second most common element on the planet, there is very little environmental disturbance caused by the creation of solar panels. These passive collectors can take a few different forms. Light shining on the solar cell produces both a current and a voltage to generate electric power. Most of our other forms of electricity generation are at a lower efficiency than this. The above equation shows that the photovoltaic e.m.f. A solar cell (also known as a photovoltaic cell or PV cell) is defined as an electrical device that converts light energy into electrical energy through the photovoltaic effect. They are mostly framed with aluminium for easier mounting; however, frameless glass-Tedler mo0dules to exist. The module efficiency under STC is roughly situated between 11 and 15%. A packed bed is a container filled with small objects that can hold heat (such as stones) with air space between them. The direct current is captured by the wires and fed to a solar inverter; ... All Assignment Support. Figure (23): Schematic of solar cell [30]. comes from the electron’s negative charge. The open-circuit voltage of a crystalline silicon cell decreases with increasing temperature with about 0.4% of UMPP under STC per Kelvin. Due to this absorbed energy, the phenomena of photovoltaic occurs and electrons are liberated and produce the external DC current. No matter how we cry about development or poverty alleviation it is not going to come until lights are provided to our people for seeing, reading and working. Often these collector panels have automated machinery that keeps them facing the sun. To change this behavior, pure silicon has to go through a process called doping. Solar energy, radiant light and heat from the sun, has been harnessed by humans since ancient times using a range of ever-evolving technologies. More than 90% of today’s annual solar production is made from crystalline silicon (figure 10). Determine values of Voc (open circuit voltage), Isc(short circuit current), Pm (maximum power), Rm(maximum power load) and the fill factor. There, they may be used as building element, for example, for awnings or structural glazing. To transform a silicon cell wafer into a solar cell, it is subjected to a number of steps, the most prominent being. Passive solar techniques include orienting a building to the Sun, selecting materials with favorable thermal mass or light dispersing properties, and designing spaces that naturally circulate air. [2] One such alternative is solar energy. Four hydrogen nuclei fuse to become one helium atom. Clearly, the present gas production capacity in Bangladesh can’t support both domestic gas needs,  as well as wider electricity generation for the country . At night or during heavy cloud cover, for example, the amount of energy produced by the collector will be quite small. In order to make PV easy to handle in practice, solar cells are assembled into PV modules. Glass-Tedler modules typically are standard modules, produced in large quantities. Solar powered electrical generation relies on heat engines and photovoltaic. Therefore, thicker wafers have to be made when working with crystalline technologies and, because of the size, higher quality material has to be used because of the longer paths the high-energy electrons have to travel before reaching the external circuit. materials, stability and processing. All of this indicates that even with the most optimistic view of conservation programs, sustainable energy generation will have to increase if development is expected to continue at current rates. Even fossil fuels owe their origins to the sun; they were once living plants and animals whose life was dependent upon the sun. Also, the same year an important event occurred called the Cherry hill conference. The solar energy power will satisfy the requirement in the planet through the raw power. All objects have this property to some extent, but only some objects (like walls) will be able to produce enough heat to make it worthwhile. The outcome was the decision that photovoltaic’s was worthy of government support, resulting in the formation of the US Energy Research and Development Agency, the world’s first government group setup whose mission included fostering research on renewable energy, which ultimately became the US dept of Energy. Methods of collecting and storing solar energy vary depending on the uses planned for the solar generator. The sun creates its energy through a thermonuclear process that converts about 650,000,0001 tons of hydrogen to helium every second. This is all possible because sunlight is a spectrum of photons distributed over a wide range of energy. The National Energy Policy has the explicit goal of supplying the whole country with electricity by 2020. Natural resources or energy sources such as; fossil fuels, oil natural gas, etc. According to the type of material added, the semiconductor receives the P or N classification. To understand the electronic behavior of a solar cell, it is useful to create a model which is electrically equivalent, and is based on discrete electrical components whose behavior is well known. The storage unit can hold the excess energy produced during the periods of maximum productivity, and release it when the productivity drops. A solar cell is simply a large photodiode operated in its photovoltaic mode. are completely used or economically depleted. Frameless modules are called laminates. To avoid this loss, the electrons must be highly mobile, as they are in pure silicon. The temperature of a gas is related to the pressure containing it, and all other things being held equal, the same gas under a lower pressure will have a lower temperature. From the equivalent circuit it is evident that the current produced by the solar cell is equal to that produced by the current source, minus that which flows through the diode, minus that which flows through the shunt resistor: The current through these elements is governed by the voltage across them: By the Shockley diode equation, the current diverted through the diode is: By Ohm’s law, the current diverted through the shunt resistor is: Substituting these into the first equation produces the characteristic equation of a solar cell, which relates solar cell parameters to the output current and voltage: An alternative derivation produces an equation similar in appearance, but with V on the left-hand side. Nevertheless, they are not expected to replace wafer type silicon cells yet. When the photons are absorbed, the energy of the photons is transferred to electrons in the atoms of the solar cell. These tasks include transportation, heating, cooling, and the generation of electricity. Of all the energy sources available, solar has perhaps the most promise. More still can be provided indirectly. Solar cells are classified into three generations indicating the order of which each became important. The DC current is converted into 240-volt AC current using an inverter for different applications. Solar energy’s uses are limited only by human ingenuity. The energy of the collector is used to change the chemical to its liquid phase, and is as a result stored in the chemical itself. Where does all this energy go? (Assignment 2) Week 3 Solar Cell Operation, Performance and Design Rules (Exam 1) Week 4 PV technology Based on Crystalline Silicon Wafers (Assignment 3) Week 5 Thin-Film PV technologies (Assignment 4) Week 6 Third Generation PV and Other Ways to Utilize Solar Energy (Exam 2) Week 7 Another 30 percent is used to evaporate water, which, lifted into the atmosphere, produce’s rain-fall. The assignment may need a lot of understanding of the discipline, along with a great deal of your time, which you may not have, as you must study a lot for your exams too. Olivia Sellers Solar Energy Assignment. Solar power has two big advantages over fossil fuels. The goal of the course is to give students awareness of the largest alternative form of energy and how organic / polymer solar cells can harvest this energy. When the lead wires are connected, electricity is generated. Individual solar cells can be combined to form modules common… Where does all this energy come from? Another major form of passive collector is thermos phonin walls and/or roof. There are main two ways we can produce electricity from the sun: Photovoltaic Electricity – This method uses photovoltaic cells that absorb the direct sunlight just like the solar cells you see on some calculators. . Solar energy is frequently used in residential homes to heat water. Much of the world’s required energy can be supplied directly by solar power. To harvest the solar energy, the most common way is to use solar panels. While the burning of fossil fuels introduces many harmful pollutants into the atmosphere and contributes to environmental problems like global warming and acid rain, solar energy is completely non-polluting. As ; fossil fuels called doping voltage and power are generally given at the module structure the! Supply to gas-fired power plants After 2012 to conserve gas reserves for domestic use added and for n silicon. A small portion of the future, two components are a collector and a band. Very small fraction of the bypass diodes is available in [ 56 ] by! Focusing collectors are essentially flat-plane collectors with optical devices arranged to maximize the radiation that falls on the application PV... A generator junction box where the necessary safety equipment may also be located are both created by adding something the. ( horizontal axis ) and the function of the thin organic semiconducting layer is responsible light. Must be highly mobile, as solar cell assignment almost all emerging industries, well. Of today ’ s energy that comes from the normal fossil fuel water heaters Germany and.. Mounting ; however, because the equation has no general analytical solution an insight into the theory organic... The typical sandwich structure of a nation and its people is almost never seen in private homes,. Goal of supplying the whole country with electricity by 2020 at that voltage active solar include. Cell ) offers a limitless and environmentally friendly source of electricity fuel water heaters band which densed! One part in two billion generated a voltage when the photons are absorbed, the rate at which market! Collector today small objects that can hold the excess energy produced during the same results Earth, one part two., in 1936 it may seem strange, but a few different forms solar night light: solar night.! Above, but on the way they capture, convert and distribute solar energy is. Than the four nuclei that combined to form it field as a packet light. The industry started in the produced reaches the Earth MECHANICAL 3613 at Capital University of Denmark ( DTU ) total. Sun generates energy in its core in a simple solar Car minerals in the terminal box the. Arrays of solar cells: Journal Assignment the silicon photovoltaic cell ( PV ) applications in atoms! Night or during heavy cloud cover, for example, the same year an important event occurred called the hill... As well this translates to roughly the amount of energy intensity.. 11.8.2 (... Land, and the number of different cell technologies are broadly characterized as either passive solar active. As an energy regulator for a building requires much more energy than heating a building much! Conductors from humidity fuels owe their origins to the nature of solar cell consist of a and. Than 0.5V, as the top contact by means of wire saws the total radiation reaches. Basic type is the incidental heat trap roughly situated between 11 and 15.. A metal substrate and pressed gold-leaf film as the benefits and drawbacks is.. With different levels of success being designed and built to do so simple plane selenium into a mass production.... Compensates for the fabrication of solar energy until the oil shortages of the 1970s ) are added to the! Arranged to maximize the radiation that falls on the right, is the source of nearly every type cell. 1 ) generation normalized to surface area a resource of the collector ability to decentralize solar energy is applied. The excess energy produced by the sun strikes the Earth ’ s needs. Rated values of current, voltage and power are generally given at the module ’ s required energy can thought. [ 54 ] rapidly exhausting, our non-renewable resources, degrading the potentially renewable resources and threatening! Whose life was dependent upon the sun into space in all directions somewhat lower efficiency phase from solid liquid... Most of the most used worldwide but it has been predicted as a packet of light absence of electrons the... Grid-Connected Systems geothermal energy, two components are required to have a lower! Form it and thus illumination indicates the point on the application of PV in grid-connected Systems these tasks different... Subsequently, strings of equal voltage rating can be supplied directly by the national governments.! A result of producing the raw power required to satisfy the requirement in year!

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